Lionfish spread into Mediterranean

Suspected to come from Red Sea through Suez Canal


Once found only in the Indian and Pacific oceans, before spreading in recent years to the Caribbean and Atlantic, lionfish have been found in the Mediterranean Sea for the first time in more than 20 years, scientists report. 

Authors of a report published last week called for immediate monitoring and control of lionfish in the Mediterranean to be carried out to try to prevent an invasion of the creatures. The invasive species has wreaked havoc on coral reefs in the Caribbean. 

Lionfish have not been seen in the Mediterranean since 1991, when a single lionfish was discovered. More than two decades later, two lionfish were found late last year off the village of Al Minic, in the northern part of Lebanon. 

According to a report in Mediterranean Marine Science published on 3 June, the first was caught in October 2012 using a wire trap and photographed by fishermen before being discarded. The second was caught in December using a trammel net at 30 metres. 

Both specimens were found to be of the genus Pterois miles. Lionfish of the closely related Pterois volitans is the kind more commonly found in the Caribbean. 

Two more unconfirmed sightings of lionfish were made off Cyprus in February this year, the researchers reported. 

“Considering that P. miles is a common fish in the Red Sea and the proximity of the Suez Canal to the recent sightings, the Suez Canal seems to be the most likely pathway for the introduction of the species into the Mediterranean Sea,” said report authors Michel Bariche and M. Torres of the American University of Beirut and Ernesto Azzurro of the Institute for Environmental Protection and Research in Italy. 

Unlike in the Caribbean, where lionfish appear to have no natural predators, the scientists reported that one potential predator of lionfish already exists in the Mediterranean – the blue spotted cornetfish. 

They said that in the northern Red Sea, a juvenile lionfish was discovered in the stomach of a cornetfish. In the past decade, blue spotted cornetfish have invaded the Mediterranean Sea and established large populations in the eastern part “and may act as a biological control of a future possible invasion”, the scientists reported. 

Researchers said another possible lionfish predator could be the native Mediterranean grouper. 

Grouper in the Caribbean have been seen eating injured and dead lionfish caught by divers, but as yet do not appear to be hunting lionfish. 

Even though there have only been a tiny handful of sightings of lionfish in the Mediterranean Sea, the scientists said these recent findings may 
indicate the onset of an invasion. 

Pointing to the lionfish eradication efforts in the Caribbean that include recreational divers capturing lionfish and commercial divers and fishermen targeting them as a source of food, the authors said that even with those ongoing initiatives, “when the lionfish has established a permanent population, its complete eradication seems to be unrealistic”. 

They added: “Therefore, in the Mediterranean Sea, it will be extremely important to raise awareness and to implement monitoring efforts during the early stages of colonisation, when control measures could still be effective.” 

Read our recently published articles about lionfish: 

31 May 2013: Natasha Were | CULL Challenge is on for lionfish
Licensed to cull? Recently spears were out and ready for the June 1 & 2 – two day extravaganza of diving, hunting, spotting and spearing those feathery finned fishies. Read More >> 

24 May 2013: Norma Connolly | PADI backflips on lionfish spearing courses
Scuba diving training organisation PADI has done an about-face on qualifying instructors to teach students how to cull lionfish. Read More >> 

15 May 2013:  Tukka wins lionfish award
East End restaurant Tukka’s lionfish hunting team won the award for most lionfish caught in the latest culling tournament of the invasive species. Read More >>  

10 May 2013: Norma Connolly
On the hunt for those lionfish 

The black and white feathery stripes of the lionfish flutter
tantalisingly just slightly out of reach inside a hole in the rocks at
Thirteen Trees dive site on the west side of Grand Cayman. Read More >> 

09 May 2013: Norma Connolly |Lionfish cullers urged to report catches
There are about 400 licensed resident lionfish cullers in the Cayman Islands, but many are failing to inform the Department of Environment of how many fish they are catching and where they’re finding them. Read More >>  

01 May 2013: Norma Connolly | Sea lessons for local studentsMarine conservationist Guy Harvey has been introducing schoolchildren throughout the Cayman Islands to the underwater world without even getting wet. Read More >>


Lionfish can be found throughout the Caribbean. – PHOTO: KRISTI FEIERSTEIN


  1. Culling is never ever going to work.

    We must apply money to science. Where, genetically, we sterilize the new males.

    Once that happens, within 10 years no more lion fish. The new male fish that are born, cannot reproduce.

    That means, within 20 years, we could eradicate the lion fish off the face of this planet.

    Or at least in this hemisphere.

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