Opponents of the use of genetically modified mosquitoes in the Cayman Islands say an application to use the technique island wide is “premature.”

The Mosquito Research and Control Unit has applied for a new import permit and outlined a proposal for a two-year program to fight the disease-spreading Aedes aegypti mosquito across the Cayman Islands.

The U.S. based Institute for Responsible Technology, represented locally by HSM attorney Kerrie Cox, who also led a court action on behalf of local protesters, is asking government to consider other options.

It is pushing an alternative technique, using bacteria called Wolbachia, and is funding a visit to the island from researchers from Michigan State University, who developed the technique.

Mr. Cox said the researchers are willing to bring the program to Grand Cayman for free.

The attorney said he was surprised that an application had already been submitted by the MRCU to extend the GM mosquito program, a partnership with British biotech firm Oxitec, outside of West Bay.

He said, “The trial in West Bay has not yet been completed as far as we are aware, and the results need to be published and peer reviewed in scientific journals. The recommendation by the World Health Organization in March 2016, was for carefully planned pilot deployment [of genetically modified mosquitoes] accompanied by rigorous independent monitoring and evaluation. A general rollout across the whole of Grand Cayman is well beyond that recommendation and as such, the application is premature.”

The MRCU characterizes the West Bay program as phase one of an operational rollout, rather than a trial.

It says preliminary results show “without doubt” that the technique is working and it is seeking permission from the National Conservation Council for a national rollout.

Bill Petrie, director of the unit, told the Cayman Compass that the aim is to begin the next phase of the release in February next year, pending government approval.

However, the permit request could face an independent risk analysis – similar to the environmental impact assessment process – under new guidelines drafted by the National Conservation Council.

Mr. Cox said he was pleased that the council had established guidelines that could lead to an external analysis of the mosquito program.

He said his principal client, IRT, which appears to be a single-person organization run by Jeffrey Smith, a California based consumer activist who has campaigned against genetically modified foods, is urging the Cayman Islands government to consider an alternative method. They have highlighted the “Eliminate Dengue” program, a not-for-profit international collaboration, which infects mosquitoes with a naturally occurring bacteria, Wolbachia, reducing their ability to spread disease, as a viable, safer alternative to GM mosquitoes.

Mr. Cox said the approach was also backed by the WHO and was being led by nonprofit organizations rather than private companies.

He said he had met with researchers at Michigan State University, who developed the technique, and they were willing to supply the program in the Cayman Islands for free.

“Their goal is to simply provide a solution to mosquito-borne diseases and help countries develop a self-sustaining, long-term mosquito control program without on-going costs payable to private companies.”

He added, “As Wolbachia is already present in the environment, we suggest that this option presents a safer alternative to genetically modified organisms and its application as a vector control strategy is achieving results in excess of 95 percent in the reduction of mosquito populations,” said Mr. Cox.

“This technique has already been approved by regulators in the U.S., China, Singapore, Cuba, Mexico, Peru and Brazil.”

Professor Zhiyong Xi and David Dewitt of MSU are planning to visit Grand Cayman and give a presentation of the MSU program at the end of April, Mr. Cox said.

“We had hoped that Dr. Petrie would have been able meet them on their visit but he is unable to do so due to his attendance at a Health Conference. However, we will be inviting the DOE and members of the NCC to attend, so that they are fully aware of the Wolbachia alternative and its successful use in other countries. We hope that MRCU and the regulators have an open mind about considering an alternative to the GMM program and potential long-term costs savings.”

Mr. Petrie, the director of the MRCU, previously told the Cayman Compass, the unit had looked at the Wolbachia technique, which he said was also a bio-technology method.

“Both are very interesting from a biological point of view. They are using modern biological methods and are fairly similar in concept.”

He said the Wolbachia method had drawbacks because it involved the release of females rather than just males, which do not bite, and was not “self limiting” in the same way as the genetically modified mosquito method, where the progeny of the adapted mosquitoes don’t survive to adulthood.

He acknowledged that there had been subsequent trials with the bacteria, which had eliminated some of those problems, and said it was a technique that could potentially be reconsidered for Cayman in the future.

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3 COMMENTS

  1. I hope that peer reviewers won’t forget that Grand Cayman experienced the driest and one of the hottest years on record in 2016. Such conditions are not conducive to mosquito breeding.

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  2. Ha—you guys are on to him: “IRT, which appears to be a single-person organization run by Jeffrey Smith,”. In the US, we call it the “Living Room for Responsible Technology”. It’s not an institute. It’s not responsible. And he hates technology (unless you buy his DVDs and books–those techs are ok, as is credit card processing technology).

    But I really am perplexed about how eager Jeffrey is to introduce a new species into your insect ecosystem. Wolbachia might work–some experiments are underway. Multiple strategies might be worth having in our pocket. But it’s a much larger intervention than the small and precise effect on the GMO mosquitoes–and those are much easier to control than Wolbachia once that gets into the environment. The GMO mosquitoes are self-limiting. Wolbachia is wild. https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2016/10/the-virus-with-spider-dna/503585/

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  3. People should understand that there are two basic approaches to using Wolbachia in the Aedes aegypti mosquito to reduce the spread of viral diseases like Zika and dengue.

    The approach taken by the Eliminate Dengue group infects mosquitoes with a strain of Wolbachia bacteria that reduces the transmission of the viruses. Wolbachia-infected females are released and the bacteria spreads through the wild population via breeding. That approach does not reduce mosquito numbers and apparently has issues with higher temperatures (that selection of new Wolbachia strains will supposedly overcome) https://medicalxpress.com/news/2017-01-bacteria-deployed-mosquito-borne-dengue.html

    An alternate approach is used by Professor Zhiyong Xi’s group as well as a US for-profit company named MosquitoMate. In this case a different Wolbachia strain is used that takes advantage of a phenomenon known as ‘cytoplasmic incompatibility’ where Wolbachia-infected males are released to mate with wild females in much the same way that GM males are released. Eggs laid by a non-Wolbachia-infected female mated to a Wolbachia-infected male do not hatch. The problem with this approach is that if Wolbachia-infected females are accidentally released, the Wolbachia can spread through the wild population and sabotage the approach (Wolbachia-infected females have no problem mating with Wolbachia-infected males). An irony of this approach is that the mosquito genes involved in the cytoplasmic incompatibility were recently discovered and researchers claim that they would be more effective in a transgenic(!) approach https://www.wired.com/2017/02/bizarre-bacteria-key-controlling-mosquitoes/

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